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Rabb Forest Mobley with wife Irma Hollywood from grandson Robert WilsonRabb Forest Mobley, pictured with his wife Irma, after World War I. (Photo courtesy of Robert Wilson, Mobley's grandson.) 

The World War I Diary of Private Rabb Forest Mobley 

By Mike Forster
Special to the Doughboy Foundation web site

In the late 1980s, my wife found a notepad of lined paper on a sidewalk in Menlo Park, California. The notepad was misplaced in our home for a decade, rediscovered in 2001, packed again into a box, and found again in 2017. The notepad appears to be the diary of an American World War I Doughboy, from June 28th through October 3, 1918.

Mike ForsterMike ForsterI had more time available after my retirement, a lifelong interest in history, and enjoyment in researching unusual situations. So, I decided to investigate to determine the author, and to see if I could find a family member that would like to have this memento.

The investigation concluded that the diary's author was a Private Rabb Forest Mobley. This diary was not just the story of great battles and heroism. I felt as if I were walking alongside the Private Mobley as he experienced day-to-day life in the army, crossing the Atlantic and in the French theater.

Private Mobley includes observation such as:

"Have been passing through some beautiful country – reminds me of California. But everything is so far behind the times. The French people are still using oxen to ploug with and 2 wheel carts are all the go – if they use 2 horses they are always drove in tandem."

" Had supper with a French family and had a great time showing the French girl how to make hot cakes."

But the diary also reminds us that our World War I American Expeditionary Force of front-line troops were heroes. They risked their lives just crossing the Atlantic, with encounters with German submarines that could have sunk them at any moment. They could be killed at any moment by enemy artillery shells hitting their encampments. And despite the risks, they carried through on their missions, such as repairing railroads. These missions might seem mundane compared with front-line fighting, but just as necessary for victory.

Once Rabb Forest Mobley was determined to be the author of the diary, the hunt for his relatives began. Ancestry.com was a very useful resource in this quest. Rabb married Irma Smith in 1924, and they had one daughter in 1925, Barbara Helene Mobley. She married Robert Dean Wilson, and had three children. This story about the discovery and investigation of the diary was emailed to those three descendants. The original physical diary was mailed to one of these grandchildren, Robert D. Wilson. A scanned copy of the original is available.

This diary was not just the story of great battles and heroism. I felt as if I were walking alongside the Private Mobley as he experienced day-to-day life in the army, crossing the Atlantic and in the French theater.

But the diary also reminds us that our World War I American Expeditionary Force of front-line troops were heroes. They risked their lives just crossing the Atlantic, with encounters with German submarines that could have sunk them at any moment. They could be killed at any moment by enemy artillery shells hitting their encampments. And despite the risks, they carried through on their missions, such as repairing railroads. These missions might seem mundane compared with front-line fighting, but just as necessary for victory.

Lafayette Escadrille ceremony B 52A U.S. Air Force B-52 Stratofortress bomber flies over the Lafayette Escadrille Memorial in Marnes-la-Coquette, France, April 20, 2016, during a ceremony honoring the 268 Americans who joined the French Air Force before the U.S. officially engaged in World War I. (Air Force photograph by Tech. Sgt. Joshua DeMotts) 

The Lafayette Escadrille: Americans who flew with French in WWI honored

By Bob Alvis
via the Aerotech News web site 

With the Fourth of July just around the corner, I wanted to look back at America’s involvement in World War I and specifically, those daring young men in their flying machines.

Little did I know that my research would open some doors into the subject that would end up with me having a talk with the head of the American Battlefield Monuments Commission in Virginia.

Living here in the Antelope Valley with all its aviation history and firsts, it is easy to think that the warbirds of the world and especially the United States were home grown — but that is actually far from the truth. The development of the modern-day combat aircraft came into being in the skies over France and Germany in World War I, when two individuals took to the skies with only side arms and attempted to shoot each other till they ran out of ammo, and then just waved at each other and flew home. That was the beginning of what would grow into a worldwide quest to own the skies. The United States would soon have their own chapter flying in those same skies and would form a group of volunteers who would become legendary in the world of American aviation: the famous Lafayette Escadrille.

The Lafayette Escadrille was formed thanks to three individuals: Norman Prince of Boston, Mass., William Thaw of Pittsburgh, Penn., and Dr. Edmond Gros, an American expatriate living in France.

Seeking to aid the Allied cause, they lobbied officials in Paris to create an all-American squadron within the French Air Service. The Allies were in need of more combat forces, and were fully aware of the positive propaganda value that Americans flying under the French flag could afford in garnering United States support for the Allied cause.

French officials approved the concept on Aug. 21, 1915, and the beginning of American Combat aviation was born.

 

Lakewood, WA Helps Relocate Living WWI Memorial

By Charles Woodman
via the Patch-Lakewood-JBLM (WA) newspaper web site  

LAKEWOOD, WA — The City of Lakewood is recognizing two men who have helped preserve a living memorial to the thousands of American soldiers who died in World War 1.

The memorial in question is the Boulevard of Remembrance Oaks. Shortly after WWI, 500 oak trees were planted along the highway running from Fort Lewis to Tacoma, a memorial to those who served and died in the war.

But as the city explains, in the decades since the highway was expanded into I-5, and encroached upon the boulevard.

"Over time those 500 trees got whittled down very severely," says Michael Farley from the DuPont Tree Board. "A lot of the trees fell victim to the 'chainsaw-bulldozer disease'."

Now only 31 of the original 500 oaks remain standing. Fortunately, Farley and fellow DuPont Tree Board member Kyle McCreary have been working on a solution: collecting the acorns of the old oaks, and nurturing them to maturity.

Las Olas postcard l1600A postcard from the 1940's show the palm trees planted in the median of Las Olas Blvd. as a World War I memorial in what is now the Idlewyld neighborhood of Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

Gripes are growing: Don’t mess with Las Olas and its tree-lined median

By Susannah Bryan
via the South Florida Sun-Sentinel newspaper web site 

Judging from the rumblings, not everyone is in love with the idea of an extreme makeover for Las Olas that will forever remove the tree-lined median — a timeless touch that helped the iconic boulevard win a national competition for most beautiful street in America.

The coming redesign of the 2.4-mile historic corridor has tongues wagging and keyboards clacking, with residents blasting their opinions on social media and in emails to City Hall.

Las Olas Blvd. Sun Sentinel photoA dramatic transformation is on the way for historic Las Olas Boulevard in Fort Lauderdale. Carline Jean/South Florida Sun Sentinel“Removing … the center trees is crazy to me ,” one man from Las Olas Isles griped.

Another complaint came from a longtime resident and activist in the Harbor Beach neighborhood: “Majority are very critical of removing the trees for both loss of charm and shade. Not a popular plan with little support. What’s the alternative?”

Even a guy from Denver weighed in.

“I’m 1,703 miles away, haven’t been a part of the discussion and may not know all the facts about the changes to Las Olas Boulevard,” he wrote in a letter to the South Florida Sun Sentinel. “But there is the old phrase about the forest and the trees. This decision will come back to haunt city leaders.

“I remember after the tree-lined median was planted how bearable it was to visit the Las Olas Arts Festival at midday because of the shade. … Leave the center median in place and prevent those inevitable head-on collisions.”

The redesign will cost close to $140 million, according to early estimates. Now Fort Lauderdale leaders have to find a way to pay for it.

Commissioners signed off on what they called “ the vision ” Tuesday night, but they say there will be tweaks along the way.

“All of this will be fleshed out as we continue,” said Commissioner Steve Glassman, whose district includes Las Olas and the surrounding neighborhoods. “We are accepting a vision, then we will go through the design phase. All along the way we will have public input. It’s still a long road.” 

Marlborough MA WWI veterans composite(left) Two large frames memorialize Marlborough’s World War I veterans and were found in the attic of American Legion Post 132. (center) Ralph J. Lord, who was killed in July of 1918, is buried at the Aisne-Marne American Cemetery in Belleau, France (right). 

World War I artifacts discovered in American Legion attic

By Cindy Zomar
the Community Advocate newspaper (MA) web site 

MARLBOROUGH – Nearly everyone can identify with the feeling of finding long-forgotten items stored in the attic. But, when the items are more than a century old, such a find becomes newsworthy.

Commander Mike Ferro of the Akroyd Houde Post 132 American Legion recalls that Marlborough resident Matty Sargent, a Navy reservist and ardent history buff, recently asked about taking a look in the attic to see if there were any interesting artifacts stored up there.

Ferro admits that he’d only been up there once himself and was completely shocked when Sargent unearthed two framed pictures that had been donated to Post 132 in 1920.

One is a compilation of vignettes of all the Marlborough WWI veterans, while the other details the births and deaths of those veterans, including where they were killed, for those who did not come home.

According to Ferro, the list appears to have been written in calligraphy drawn painstakingly by hand by a woman named Mazie Kane Wells. Nothing is known about her as of yet.

Find keeps memories alive
According to Sargent, this photo collage will be a big boon to how history is remembered in Marlborough.

“As more information becomes available online, it is easier to tell these men’s stories, but their photos really add a new dimension to their life and sacrifice,” he said. “As there are no living World War I veterans, it is important for families of not only those who died but those who served, to keep photos, mementos, journals and the stories of these men and women alive.”

History buff reaches out to descendants
Quite adept at researching veterans’ lives and tracing families through tools like Ancestry.com, Sargent has been finding connections to those pictured in the photo collage.

Many of the relatives have subsequently shared newspapers, copies of citations, or even pictures of medals their loved ones had received so that he can make appropriate tags to hang on the monuments.

In one such case, Sargent reached out to Bob Lord, a former Marlborough resident living in Westborough. Sargent asked if Lord was related to the Ralph J. Lord who was killed in July of 1918. He found that not only was Lord related to the young man on the photo, it was his paternal uncle. 

Long Island Veterans Memorial Plaza: In Remembrance of Our World War I Veterans 

By Jun-Yi Wu
via the Stony Brook University (NY) web site 

In spring 2021, students in English 309 studied the history and literature of World War I. A few students elected to fulfill Stony Brook’s experiential learning requirement (EXP+) by visiting, researching, and writing about a WWI memorial on Long Island. In the first of these posts, English major Jun-Yi Wu writes about a Copiague memorial.

Long Island Veterans Memorial PlazaAn unnamed American soldier stands 11-feet tall north of the Copiague train station on a piece of land named the “Veterans Memorial Plaza.” Behind him, a marker lists the names of Italian-American soldiers who fought during World War I. The Veterans Plaza Memorial dates back to the 1920s, a couple of years after the end of WWI, but on December 15, 2015, a doughboy statue was erected, and renovations were made to the old veterans plaza.

From August of 1914 to November of 1918, the world witnessed one of the largest and most influential wars it has ever seen. The battles during WWI not only changed the landscape of Europe due to trench warfare, but they also damaged civilization and would forever change Europe’s thoughts about the principles of constitutionalism, the rule of law, and representative government. Soldiers in Europe began to resent their government for making them fight in a war that they believed would be honorable. Instead, war tactics evolved during WWI, and soldiers had to suffer surprise attacks, unbearable weather conditions, and chemical warfare. English poet Robert Graves, who fought in the war, wrote in an article in The Observer that the trenches were “like air-raid shelters hastily dug in a muddy field, fenced by a tangle of barbed wire, surrounded by enormous craters; subjected not only to an incessant air-raid of varying intensity, but to constant surprise attacks by professional killers, and without any protection against flooding times of heavy rain.” WWI would forever change the way that countries fought war, and it would heavily influence the way that war was fought during WWII.

However, in the United States, the First World War is often overshadowed by the Second World War. Even though WWI lasted for four years, most Americans wanted to remain neutral in the war, so the U.S. did not enter the war until April of 1917. For the majority of WWI, the United States kept their distance from the war while supplying goods and ammunition to the Allied Powers. Although WWI is often overshadowed by the WWII, military historian John Keegan argues that the Great War sparked “a legacy of political rancor and racial hatred so intense that no explanation of the causes of the Second World War can stand without reference to those roots.” The war tactics of Nazi-Germany—the gas chambers, barbed-wire concentration camps, and blitzkriegs—are as much relics of the First World War as they are of the Second.

It is important to remember the wars and honor the veterans to not only appreciate their courage but to also let people learn from the catastrophes of war. In the 1920s, Copiague constructed the WWI Immigrant Memorial, a marker with the names of Italian-Americans from Long Island who fought in WWI.

AEFUnder the command of John J. Pershing, the AEF more than left its mark on the war. In the end, Pershing had defeated not only the Germans, but also the Allied commanders who had tried so hard to erase the independence of American units that fought on the Western Front. 

The American Expeditionary Forces Were Major Heroes During World War I

By Warfare History Network
via The National Interest web site 

As the fateful day drew to a close, the exhausted soldiers of the German 25th and 82nd Reserve Divisions huddled in their trenches. It was May 30, 1918, and for the past two days the Germans had battled elements of the American 1st Division for control of the small village of Cantigny and its environs. Before them the virgin ground had been churned, the town shot up, and its cemetery turned into a ghoulish battlefield of broken headstones and protruding coffins.

While the Americans had given ground, they had not broken, and they had repulsed every assault the experienced Germans mounted. Over the course of the battle, the Americans had whittled the 82nd Reserve Division down to 2,500 effective personnel. The Battle of Cantigny, the first major assault of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) on the Western Front in World War I, proved that Americans “would both fight and stick,” said Maj. Gen. Robert Lee Bullard, commander of the 1st Division.

The drubbing had been delivered by the 28th Infantry, later reinforced by elements of the 18th Infantry. The Battle of Cantigny began at 4:45 am on May 28. After a 90-minute artillery barrage, the Yanks advanced with three battalions arrayed along a front of 11/2kilometers. Machinegun companies protected each flank. The Americans overran most German forward positions within the first 10 minutes, although the fighting in Cantigny itself came down to flamethrowers, hand grenades, and bayonets. By 8 am the Yanks were digging in, with the 2nd Battalion occupying Cantigny and the 3rd Battalion deployed to the south.

“The success of this phase of the operation was so complete, and the list of casualties so small, that everyone was enthusiastic and delighted,” wrote Colonel George Marshall, who planned the attack. “[However], trouble was coming thick and fast.”

That afternoon, the French withdrew their supporting artillery to deal with a new German offensive. At the same time, German 210mm guns pounded the American positions and tore up the communications wires carefully laid by the 28th Infantry’s engineers. The German counterattack began in the evening and continued into the next morning. The German commander in chief, General Erich Ludendorff, had ordered that the American positions around Cantigny be utterly destroyed for the same reason AEF commander General John J. Pershing ordered that it be held at all costs. “For the 1st Division to lose its first objective was unthinkable and would have had a most depressing effect on the morale of our entire Army, as well as those of our Allies,” wrote Marshall.

The Germans pushed the 2nd Battalion out of its forward positions and into Cantigny proper. To the south, the 3rd Battalion held firm, delivering deadly rifle and machine-gun fire into the attacking Germans. American artillery also seriously disrupted the German attack. However, German artillery, which had survived due to ineffective American counterbattery fire, inflicted heavy losses on the Americans. As a result, the 28th Infantry’s commander, Colonel Hanson E. Ely, was forced to bring his only two reserve companies forward. The Germans launched a second counterattack on the morning of May 29, but this was broken up once more by American rifle and machine-gun fire. German commanders realized that the Americans were probably advancing no farther and halted the attacks, content to harass instead. When the 28th Infantry was pulled off the line on May 30, it left more than 1,000 of its number on the battlefield.

The assault had been of the utmost importance to Pershing. Days before the attack, the men of the 18th Infantry had been withdrawn to the rear area. They meticulously planned and rehearsed the assault against an exact replica of the German defenses in and around Cantigny. In these maneuvers, Pershing’s idea of open warfare was emphasized as was staff work and above all maintaining communications between the front and headquarters. This extensive planning and preparation were typical of Pershing.

WWI Memorial Bozrah CT 2021People gather at the World War I Memorial in Bozrah, CT in Memorial Day to honor all those who have fallen in the nation's service during wartime. Taps was played by a bugler at the end of the services.

Bozrah, CT honors World War I dead on Memorial Day

By Mary Elizabeth Lang
via The Day newspaper (CT) web site 

The weekend storm had faded to morning mist on Monday, May 31, when a small crowd of about 20 hardy, well-bundled souls gathered at two sites in Bozrah on Memorial Day.

Organized by American Legion Post 138 with help from Legion members in nearby Norwich, the ceremony began at 10 a.m. at the World War I Memorial at the corner of Fitchville Road and Bozrah Street Extension.

There the flag was lowered to half staff, a wreath was laid to commemorate the nation’s fallen and Taps was sounded by Debra Coats, who serves the nearby Fields Memorial School as band and choral director.

Following the brief ceremony at the World War I Memorial, the group moved to Veterans Memorial Park, opposite the Bozrah Town Hall. The flag there was also lowered to half staff, another wreath was laid and American Legion member Ray Barber introduced Post 138 Commander Jim Robertson and Bozrah First Selectman Carl Zorn, both of whom spoke briefly.

They were followed by guest speaker Jon Pierce, submarine service veteran and Veteran Employment Representative for New London County at the Connecticut Department of Labor.

Pierce gave a brief history of Memorial Day, which began as Decoration Day after the Civil War, when citizens adorned the graves of veterans with flowers and flags. Although celebrated in many places in honor of all those who fell in American wars, Memorial Day was officially declared a national holiday by Congress in 1971, the date being set as the last Monday in May.

Pierce reminded the assembly that “it is important to continue sharing the story” of American lives lost in battle, quoting Spanish philosopher George Santayana: “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”

To close the ceremony, Coats again sounded Taps. Everyone went home with a small American flag handed out by American Legion members.


WWI Memorial Bozrah CT 2021During World War I, the Salvation Army sent women to France to lift the spirits of the soldiers – and to serve them comfort food. Their food of choice? Hot doughnuts. The women became known as “Doughnut Girls,” and on June 4, in conjunction with National Doughnut Day, a program in Norwich, CT celebrated their work in the Great War, as well as the local World War I Memorial. 

Norwich, CT program honors WWI Doughnut Girls

By Claire Bessette
via The Day newspaper (CT) web site 

Norwich — City Historian Dale Plummer connected the dots meticulously to make a solid connection between National Doughnut Day on June 4 and the effort to resume fundraising to restore the city’s World War I howitzer and create a lasting memorial to local soldiers of that war.

Plummer, chairman of the WWI Memorial Committee, recalled seeing a restored WWI field stove in operation at a reenactment event and thought it might be interesting to bring that to Norwich. He learned that National Doughnut Day is June 4 and that its origins are rooted in the work by organizations to boost morale of U.S. troops fighting in France from 1917-18.

Salvation Army “Doughnut Girls” — young women — worked at or close to the front during the war, cooking and serving millions of doughnuts to troops trying to catch a breather between battles, Plummer said.

“It was pretty much plain or with sugar and cinnamon,” he said. “They weren’t making Boston crème or anything more elaborate. Simple stuff, and coffee. It was a big morale booster, kind of like someone from home serving you something fresh and hot. They got pretty close to the front lines, too, so they had to be pretty brave.”

On Saturday, from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., World War I reenactors set up a field camp on the Norwichtown Green, with Norwich native Allen Crane's restored field stove. Reenactors portraying Salvation Army Doughnut Girls cooked and served doughnuts to the public for a requested donation to the WWI memorial.

The committee also purchased modern Dixie Donuts to supplement the period creations.

Dracut MA memorialRichard Silvio at the Dracut memorial. The Dracut High School student became the leader of a volunteer effort to restore the memorial. 

A new volunteer effort in Dracut, MA aims to remember those fallen in the Great War 

By Rebecca Duda
via the Lowell Sun newspaper (MA) web site 

Dracut is a small town, but it is not lacking on volunteers. From the Dracut Scholarship Foundation to Old Home Day, the people of Dracut always come together for a good cause.

Recently, I learned of a new volunteer project underway in town and it is being organized by Dracut High School student Richard Silvio. Silvio is founder and president of the World War I Rededication Committee.

Dracut’s World War I memorial is located in the heart of Hovey Square, so named for the old Hovey house and tavern, which once stood where Hannaford Supermarket now is located. While the square had long been a busy thoroughfare for travelers, in 1925 it was the site of a dedication ceremony to honor the Dracut men who served in the Great War.

A group of volunteers led by Warren Fox organized a committee to commission a memorial to honor the 160 men from Dracut who served from 1917 to 1919. The massive granite monument was unveiled May 30, 1925 — Memorial Day — at a ceremony the Lowell Sun described as, “inspiring and impressive.” Those in attendance and seated near the speakers’ platform included Gold Star mothers, veterans from the Spanish-American War and World War I, and Boy and Girl Scouts.

With the passage of time, that generation of volunteers has passed and the memorial they unveiled has stood silently in the middle of the bustle of Hovey Square. Today the bronze plaque is weathered and the granite needs to be washed down to bring it back to its former grandeur. That is where Richard Silvio and the World War I Rededication Committee comes in. Their goal is to restore the memorial and to also educate the public on Dracut’s efforts during World War I.

So, how did a Dracut High School student become the leader of this volunteer effort? He credited his fourth grade teacher, Mrs. Boucher, with piquing his interest in the early 20th century. He told me she taught the class about the sinking of the Titanic in 1912 and ever since he has been fascinated by this time period. Later on, he became interested in World War I. An avid reader, Silvio has read up on the Battle of Verdun and recently read “The Last of the Doughboys.”

Like all students I’ve encountered, Silvio enjoys connecting local history with larger global events. As he was reading John Pendergast’s book, “Dracut,” he discovered Dracut’s connection to World War I and the memorial in Hovey Square. He then paid a visit to park to see first-hand the 1925 memorial.

After visiting the memorial, he was saddened to see that it had been forgotten, much like the war itself, and felt it needed to be restored.

retreathell 

‘Retreat? Hell! We just got here!’ is 103 years old and still badass 

By Paul Szoldra
via the taskandpurpose.com web site 

A Marine officer showed up to the front lines of combat on this day 103 years ago and uttered one of the most badass and enduring quotes of all time: “Retreat? Hell! We just got here!”

The phrase ‘Retreat Hell’ has been the motto of one of the Marine Corps’ most-decorated infantry battalions for more than two decades, and has long served as a motivational quote to inspire Marines past and present. But on June 2, 1918, a captain named Lloyd Williams thought to say the iconic cool guy quote in the heat of battle during World War I, and in so doing cemented himself in Marine lore.

The Americans had been in the war for little more than a year by then and the Marines were eager to get into the fight. A large number of college athletes and “unusually high quality of men presented themselves for enlistment” in the Corps, according to an official Marine history of the 6th Marine Regiment. They joined experienced officers and noncommissioned officers like 1st Sgt. Daniel Daly and Col. Albertus Catlin, both recipients of the Medal of Honor. Heavy combat came in late May 1918 with a massive German offensive that caused “utter confusion as the allies tried to reorganize their lines.”

Williams was commanding the 51st Company of the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment that was fighting alongside the French and expecting a German attack on June 2, according to an account in Leatherneck Magazine. But less than an hour after arriving, Williams received word from a French commander that all American and French forces were to pull back. “Retreat? Hell! We just got here,” Williams reportedly said.

Still, the source of this quote is a matter of considerable debate. It appears on the website of the Marine Corps History Division as a famous quote but is attributed to “several World War I Marine Corps officers” at Belleau Wood in June 1918. A lengthy account of the battle for Defense Media Network and the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment attributes the quote to Williams. Meanwhile, the 6th Marine regimental history explains what happened this way:

wardead history 66ad7d1c c158 11eb 8c18 fd53a628b992French and American Soldiers salute at the funeral of one of their comrades at base hospital No. 17, Dijon, France, on Sept. 6, 1918. (Sgt. Reyden, S.C./National Archives and Records Administration) 

After World War I, US families were asked if they wanted their dead brought home; 40,000 said yes

By Michael E. Ruane
via the Stars and Stripes Newspaper web site 

In 1919, when Theodore J. Argiroplos, of Keyser, W. Va., got the government post card asking if he wanted the body of his brother shipped home for burial, he entered "yes" on the appropriate line.

Private James Argiroplos, 24, of the 80th division's 317th infantry regiment, had been killed on Aug. 15, 1918, near a place called Hébuterne in France. And he, and thousands of other dead Americans, were eligible to be buried in an American cemetery in France, or brought home.

So in a massive and little-remembered project after World War I, the U.S. sent out 74,000 questionnaire cards asking families what they wanted and then tried to fulfill their wishes.

Sixty-three thousand answers were received by January 1920, according to historian Lisa M. Budreau.

And between 1919 and 1922 the government identified, located, and exhumed about 44,000 bodies and shipped them home for burial.

But in certain cases, like that of James Argiroplos, the effort was blocked by the brutality of the war.

"Neither the United States nor any other nation up until that time had ever attempted such a colossal task," Budreau wrote in her 2010 book, "Bodies of War."

On May 23, 1921, President Warren Harding went to Pier 3 in Hoboken, N.J., to pay tribute to the 5,000 bodies that had just arrived on the funeral ship USAT Wheaton.

"These dead know ... nothing of the sentiment or the tenderness which brings their wasted bodies to the homeland, for burial close to kin and friends and cherished associations," he said. "These poor bodies are but the clay tenements ... of souls, which flamed in patriotic devotion, (and) lighted new hopes on the battlegrounds of civilization."

Roughly 100,000 Americans died during World War I, from combat, the influenza pandemic and other causes, historians say.

And the repatriation effort came about as the United States was preparing for the solemn homecoming of the lone unknown soldier in November, 1921.

"This is everyone else," said Ryan Hegg, the lead organizer of Homecoming '21, a project that has helped catalogue the 5,000 dead aboard the ship.

1024px USA infantry Verdun WWIBlack American soldiers marching in Verdun, France, during World War I. (Duke University) 

After 100 years, soldiers are no longer segregated on Durham’s WWI memorial 

By Andrew Carter
via the Stars and Stripes Newspaper web site 

DURHAM, N.C. (Tribune News Service) — For 100 years, the World War I memorial in Durham served as a constant reminder of a different and more unequal era in American history. The stone pillar was both a monument to those who lost their lives, and to a time when not even their ultimate sacrifice could make men equal in the eyes of the country they died serving.

When the memorial went up in 1921, the first piece in what became a statue garden in front of the old county courthouse, it listed Durham County men who'd died in the war. The names of the white soldiers were etched into the front of the monument, facing Main Street and easily visible to those who walked past. On the back, out of sight, were the names of the Black soldiers.

In time, the monument began to symbolize a quiet fight for equality. Now, after a year of national reckoning concerning race, and in a time in which Confederate monuments throughout the South have been removed or torn down, Durham's World War I memorial tells a more complete story. In March, the city unveiled a plaque in front of the memorial, complete with historical context and a full list of the men who died in that war.

The names are organized not by race, but in alphabetical order. More than a hundred years after those men could have died together in a trench, they are listed together in a prominent place in their home county, which they once departed never to return.

"It reflected a time period that wasn't our best and brightest," Linzie Atkins said of the memorial's original form, when the names were segregated. Atkins is an officer with the Durham County Department of Veterans Services, and he assisted in the effort to update the monument. Through various records, he helped identify some soldiers whose names were not included on the memorial.

"I welcomed the project," he said, "in terms of trying to come up with some way of addressing that particular era here in Durham, and then trying to do as best we can to kind of put things in order. Because on the battlefield, the bullet doesn't care what color you are."

The updated memorial has been a long time coming, and is the culmination of an effort that dates to at least 2003. That's when the Durham City/County Appearance Commission adopted a resolution to address the segregated names on the memorial. In 2013, Eddie Davis, a former Durham city councilman, submitted that resolution to the board of county commissioners.

It took another eight years for the project to come to fruition.

 "Displaying this memorial plaque will serve as a sober reminder that the time to do what is right is always 'now,'" Lois Harvin-Ravin, the county director of veterans services, said in a recent statement. "It's about more than rearranged and added names. This plaque speaks from the heart of Durham and shouts that every life is important, regardless of race."